Infrequently Noted

Alex Russell on browsers, standards, and the process of progress.

Hobson's Browser

How Apple, Facebook, and Google Broke the Mobile Browser Market by Silently Undermining User Choice

Update: This post was turned into a talk for State of The Browser in October 2021; you can watch the recording here.

At first glance, the market for mobile browsers looks roughly functional. The 85% global-share OS (Android) has historically facilitated browser choice and diversity in browser engines. Engine diversity is essential, as it is the mechanism that causes competition to deliver better performance, capability, privacy, security, and user controls. More on that when we get to iOS.

Tech pundits and policymakers form expectations of browsers on the desktop and think about mobile browser competition the same way. To recap:

Each point highlights a different aspect of ecosystem health. Together, these properties show how functioning markets work: clear and meaningful user choice creates competitive pressure that improves products over time. Users select higher quality products in the dimensions they care about most, driving quality and progress.

The mobile ecosystem appears to retain these properties, but the resemblance is only skin deep. Understanding how mobile OSes undermine browser choice requires a nuanced understanding of OS and browser technology. It's no wonder that few commenters are connecting the dots.[2]

How bad is the situation? It may surprise you to learn that until late last year only Safari could be default browser on iOS. It may further disorient you to know that competing vendors are still prevented from delivering their own engines on iOS. Meanwhile, on Android, the #2 and #3 sources of web traffic do not respect browser choice. Users can have any browser with any engine they like, but it's unlikely to be used. The Play Store is little more than a Potemkin Village of browser choice; a vibrant facade to hide the rot.

Registering to handle link taps is only half the battle. For a browser to serve as the user's agent, it must also receive navigations. Google's Search App and Facebook's various apps for Android undermine these choices in slightly different ways.[3] This reduces the effectiveness of privacy and security choices users entrust in their browsers. Developers also suffer higher costs and reduced opportunities to escape Google, Facebook, and Apple's walled gardens.

Web engineers frequently refer to browsers as "User Agents", a nod to their unique role as interpreters of developer intent that give users the final say over how the web is experienced. A silent erosion in the effectiveness of browser choice has transferred this power away from users, re-depositing it with dominant platforms and app publishers. To understand how this sell-out happened (quite literally) under our noses, we must look closely at how mobile and desktop differ.

The Baseline Scenario

The predominant desktop situation is relatively straightforward:

Browsers handle links, and non-browsers defer loading http and https URLs to the system, which in turn invokes the default browser. This flow is the central transaction that gives links power and utility. If any of the players involved (OSes, browsers, or referring apps) violate aspects of the contract, user choice in browsers becomes less effective.

"What, then, is a 'browser'?" you might ask? I've got a long blog post brewing on this, but jumping to the end, an operable definition is:

A browser is an application that can register with an OS to handle http and https navigations by default.

On Android this is expressed via specific intent filters in the manifest and listing in the BROWSABLE category. iOS gained browser support in late 2020 (a dozen years late) via an Entitlement.[4] Windows and other Desktop OSes have similar (if less tidy) mechanisms.

No matter how an OS technically facilitates user choice, it's this ability to choose that defines browsers as a class. How often links lead users to their preferred browser controls the meaningfulness of this choice.

Modern browsers like Chrome and Samsung Internet support a long list of features that make web apps more powerful and keep users safer. Both pass all eighteen feature tests in Thomas Steiner's excellent 🕵️ PWA Feature Detector

Android's "In-App Browser" Problem(s)

The history of mobile computing starts from an incredibly resource-constrained point. First-generation iOS and Android smartphones were slow single-core, memory-impoverished affairs, leading mobile OSes to learn new tricks to facilitate responsive computing. Android and iOS adopted heuristics to kill and reclaim RAM used by non-foreground apps when resource pressure intensified.

This background task killing behaviour created unique problems for link-heavy apps. Launching the user's browser placed linking apps in the background, increasing friction in returning to the sending app, as browser UI did not provide affordances for returning to referring applications. Being put in the background also increases the likelihood of being killed.[5] Returning to the source app while in this state can feel excruciating. It can take seconds to re-start the original app and restore the UI state, an experience that gets worse on low-end devices that are most likely to evict apps in the first place.

Engagement-thirsty apps began including "In-App Browsers" ("IABs") to address these challenges. Contrary to any plain-language understanding of "a browser", these IABs cannot generally be installed as the default handler for links, even when OSes support browser choice. Instead, they load content referred by their hosting native app in system-provided WebViews.

The benefits to apps that adopt WebView-based IABs are numerous:

To the extent that users are comfortable with apps not remembering their previously-stored passwords, login state, privacy preferences, extensions, or accessibility configurations, this can be a win-win.

Conversely, the web feels broken when any one of those conditions is not met.

Thanks to the light (bordering on non-existent) attribution back to the hosting app, along with disjoint and buried user controls to disable this misfeature, users may think the web isn't worth visiting, or that their browser broke.[7]

1...2...3...Party Time!

WebViews are the source of much confusion in debates around apps and browser choice. Thankfully, the situation is only complicated rather than complex.

There are two dimensions in play:

So, a browser can be WebView-based, and so can an IAB. But neither has to be.

What is a WebView? To quote the Android documentation, a WebView is...:

A View that displays web pages. ... In most cases, we recommend using a standard web browser, like Chrome, to deliver content to the user.

WebViews have a long history in mobile OSes, filling several roles:

The power dynamics of these situations are starkly different, even though "web technology" is used to render content in each case.

The use of a "raw" WebView is entirely appropriate for first and second-party content. Here, native apps are doing work related to their core function; storage and tracking of user data are squarely within the four corners of the app's natural responsibilities. Furthermore, the content developer is unlikely to find limits presented by the WebView to be unwelcome or unreasonably immutable (via collaboration with the app developer). Instead of breaking content, WebViews are likely to facilitate it in these scenarios faithfully.

All bets are off regarding WebViews and third-party content, however. To understand why it helps to know that WebViews are not browsers.

WebViews contain core browser features, along with hooks that allow embedders to "light up" many more. However, producing a complete and competitive WebView-based browser requires additional UI and glue code. In particular, features that require permission-gated access to privileged services need explicit support from embedders to work as specified.

Features in this category include:

Few (if any) WebView browsers implement all of these features, even when their underlying WebViews support bindings for them.

The situation is even more acute in WebView IABs, which tend not to fully support features from these categories even when they appear available to developers via script. Worse, debugging from these IABs is challenging, compounded by a lack of awareness about how much traffic may come from these sources.

How can that be? Web developers are accustomed to real browsers in the desktop mould. Standard tools, analytics packages, and feature availability dashboards do not make mention of IABs, and the largest WebView IAB promulgators (Facebook, Pinterest, Snap, etc.) have invested almost nothing in clarifying the situation.

It's vital to understand that neither users nor developers chose Facebook, Pinterest, or Google Go as a browser. The flow that WebView IABs present denies users agency over their choices, and technical limits imposed by them often prevent developers from opening content in real browsers.

No documentation is available for third-party web developers from any of the largest WebView IAB (ab)users. This absence mirrors the scandalous free-riding of these app publishers regarding browser feature support, which is perhaps not surprising. It is, however, all the more egregious for the subtlety and scale of breakage.

If Facebook, the third largest "browser"-maker for Android, employs a single developer relations engineer or doc writer to cover these issues, I'm unaware of it. Meanwhile, forums are full of melancholy posts recounting myriad ways these submarine renderers break features that work in other browsers.

"Facebook Mobile Browser" relies on the system WebView built from the same Chromium revision as the installed copy of Chrome. Despite the common code lineage and exceedingly low cost to Facebook to develop, it fails to support half of the most meaningful PWA features, cutting third-party web developers off at the knees.

Having been given "the first 80%" of a browser, with development and distribution of critical components subsidised by OS vendors, WebView IABs near-universally fail to keep up their end of the bargain with either users or developers. First-party webdevs can collaborate with their app-development colleagues to build custom access for any exotic feature supported by the OS. Second-party developers expect less (ads are generally not given broad feature access). But third-party developers? They are as helpless as users are to understand why an otherwise browser-presenting environment appears subtly, yet profoundly, broken.

There are still users browsing with a Chrome 37 engine (7 years ago), not because they don't update their browsers but because it's Facebook Mobile Browser on Android 5 using a webview. Facebook does NOT honor user browser choice leaving that user with an old engine. +

Image from Tweet

These same app publishers request (and heavily use) features within real browsers they do not enable for others, even when spotted the bulk of the work. Perhaps browser and platform vendors should consider denying these apps access to capabilities they undermine for others.

WebView IAB User Harms

The consequences of WebView IABs on developers are noteworthy, but it's the impacts on users that inspire confusion and rage.

Consider again the desktop reference scenario:

Clicking links from apps transfers control to an external browser which dutifully applies the user's stored preferences and accumulated state. Login credentials for are not forgotten when a link is followed from an email. The same unified experience ensures that saved addresses and payment information are readily available. Most importantly, accessibility settings and privacy preferences are consistently applied.

Facebook's IAB features predictably dismal privacy, security, and accessibility settings. Disabling the IAB is <a href='' target='_new'>Kafkaesque journey one must embark anew for each Facebook-made app on each device.</a>
Facebook's IAB features predictably dismal privacy, security, and accessibility settings. Disabling the IAB is Kafkaesque journey one must embark anew for each Facebook-made app on each device.

By contrast, WebView IABs fracture user state, storing it in silos within each hosting application, creating a continuous partial amnesia.

The confusion that reliably results is the consequence of an inversion of the power relationship between apps and websites.

Does any user expect that everything one does on any website loaded from a link in the Facebook app, Instagram, or Google Go can be fully monitored by those apps? That all passwords shared and the full scope of sites visited from the first page can potentially be recorded and tracked?[8] To be clear, there's no record of these apps using this extraordinary access in overtly hostile ways, but even the unintended side-effects reduce user control over data and security.

Retaining onward links is not objectionable in programs that also offer themselves as browsers, but the WebView IAB sleight of hand is to act as a browser when users least expect it, but never to cop to the power and privacy implications of the responsibilities browsers accept.

CCT: A New Hope?

Libraries emerged to facilitate the construction of WebView IABs, leading to a recognition by OS and browser vendors that users were becoming confused and developers irate.

To address this challenge, Apple introduced SFSafariViewController and Google followed suit with the inartfully-named Chrome Custom Tabs protocol and helper library. Both systems allow native app developers to skip the drudge work of building a WebView IAB system and instead work with the OS to invoke the user's default browser to load web pages within the context of the host app. Similarly to WebView IABs, CCT and SFSVC address background eviction and lost app state. However, because they invoke the user's actual browser, they also prevent user confusion whilst delivering the complete set of features supported by proper browsers.

These solutions come at the cost of some flexibility for app developers who lose access to read network traffic between users and third-party sites. They also cannot inspect and change page content trivially, removing the ability to add new, non-standard features to their IABs. Counterbalancing these concerns, CCT and SFSVC restore user choice[9] and ensure developers access to the complete set of browser features.

The CCT protocol working as intended from the Twitter native app. Samsung Internet set as the default browser and loads web pages from links in the app. Important developer-facing features continue to be supported and user choice in privacy and security settings are respected.

Et Tu, Google?

CCT sounds pretty great, huh?

Well, it is. At least in the default configuration. Despite the clunky inclusion of "Chrome" in the name, the CCT library and protocol are browser-agnostic. A well-behaved CCT-invoking-app (e.g., Twitter for Android) will open URLs in the CCT-provided IAB-alike UI via Firefox, Brave, Samsung Internet, Edge, or Chrome if they are the system default browser.

That is unless the native app overrides the default behaviour and invokes a specific browser.

@slightlylate I recently was talking to my Dad about the Web and asked what browser he uses and he showed me what he does:
He searches for the Web site in the Google search widget and then just uses the results page Chrome tab as his entire browser.
His default browser is not set to Chrome.

Who would do this, you might ask? None other than Google's own Search App; you know the one that comes on every reputable Android device via the ubiquitous home screen search widget.

AGSA's homescreen widget; the text box that launched two billion phones. Links followed from search results always load in Chrome via CCT, regardless which browser users have set as default.
AGSA's homescreen widget; the text box that launched two billion phones. Links followed from search results always load in Chrome via CCT, regardless which browser users have set as default.

Known as the "Android Google Search App" ("AGSA", or "AGA"), this humble text input is the source of a truly shocking amount of web traffic; traffic that all goes to Chrome, no matter the user's choice of browser.

There were justifiable reasons to add code like this. Early in the life of the CCT protocol, before support was widespread, many browsers exhibited showstopper bugs. 2021 is far advanced from those early days, however, and so the primary effect of calling to Chrome is to distort the market for browsers and undermine user choice. This behaviour subverts user privacy, undermines the ecosystem benefits of engine diversity, and makes it hard for alternative browsers to compete on a level playing field.

This situation is admittedly better than the wholesale neutering of important developer-facing features by WebView IABs, but a Hobson's Choice none the less.

<b>'Powered By Chrome'</b>: Google's Search App disregarding browser choice on a system with Samsung Internet set as the default browser.
'Powered By Chrome': Google's Search App disregarding browser choice on a system with Samsung Internet set as the default browser.

WebLayer: New Frontiers In User Confusion

Google can (and should) revert to the system default of affirmatively respecting user choice in browsers by deleting the offending choice override. Given that AGSA uses CCT to load web pages rather than a WebView, this is nearly trivial today. CCT's core design is sound and has enormous potential if made mandatory in place of WebView IABs by the Android and Play teams.

There's reason to worry that this is unlikely.

Instead of addressing frequent developer requests for features in the CCT library, the Chrome for Android team has invested heavily in the "WebLayer" project. You can think of WebLayer like a WebView-with-batteries-included, repairing issues related to missing features but continuing to fracture state and user choice.

There is a positive case for WebLayer: as a replacement for WebViews in the context of browsers, it's a major step forward. In the context of IABs, however, WebLayer looks set to entrench user-hostile patterns further.

This subversion of choice extends a dispiriting trend in search apps that fancy themselves browsers without even attempting to earn a user's business as a browser.

In addition to Google Go, the Google app for iOS as well as Microsoft's Bing app for Android both capture outbound links in WebView IABs, subverting both browser choice and feature availability for developers. If there's any mercy, it's that their relatively lower use somewhat limits their impact on the overall ecosystem. Adopting WebLayer will not meaningfully improve the user experience or privacy of these amnesiac browsing experiences.

Google Go's WebView IAB is just as broken as Facebook's, and equally choice-undermining. As the default Search app on low-end Android Go devices, it creates new challenges for the web in emerging markets.

Google and Apple have the chance to lead, to show they aren't hostile to users, and remove the permission structure for lousy behaviour that less scrupulous players exploit. More on that in a moment.

iOS's Outsized, Malign Influence

Imagine if automakers could only use one government-mandated engine model across all cars and trucks. Different tires and upholstery only go so far. If the engine is underpowered, many tasks might not be possible, rendering whole vehicle classes pointless. If the engine is particularly polluting, choosing a different model of car can't help to reduce harmful emissions. That's the situation iOS creates for browser makers and the browser-downloading public, and the only recourse it to buy a phone running a different OS.

iOS matters because wealthy users carry iPhones. It's really as simple as that. Even when Apple's products fail to gain a numerical majority of users in a market, the margin contribution of iOS users can dominate all other business considerations.

From at least 2012, Apple has deigned to allow "competing browsers" in its App Store. Those applications could not be browsers in any meaningful sense as they could not supplant Safari as the default handler of http/https links. The long charade of choice without effect finally ended with the release of iOS 14.2 in late 2020, bringing iOS into line with every other significant OS in supporting alternative browsers.[10]

But Apple has taken explicit and extensive care to ensure that this choice is only ever skin deep on iOS. Browsers on Windows, Linux, ChromeOS, Android, and MacOS can be Integrated Browsers. iOS, meanwhile, restricts browsers to shells over the system-provided WebView.

Unlike WebView browsers on other OSes, Apple locks down these components in ways that prevent competition in additional areas, including restrictions on network stacks that block improved performance, new protocols, or increased privacy. These restrictions make some sense in the context of WebView IABs, but extending them to browsers only serves to deflect pressure from Apple to improve their browser.

Perhaps it would be reasonable for iOS to foreclose competition from integrated browsers and insist on uniquely constrained WebViews. Such policies would represent a different view of what computing should be if native apps were required to live within similar limits. However, Apple is happy to provide a much wider variety of features to unsafe native applications so long as they comply with the coercive terms of its App Store.

Integrated browsers present a model that, if allowed to flourish, pose a threat to the fundamentals of Apple and Google's whale-based, dopamine fueled, "casual" gaming monetisation rackets.

Unlike other native apps, integrated browsers are principally concerned with user safety. A safe-by-default, capable platform with low-friction discovery could obviate the core justification for app stores: that they're necessary to keep in check the over-powered-by-default apps built to an OS's proprietary platform.

Apple forestalls this bottom-line threat by keeping the web on iOS from gaining reasonable feature parity. Outlawing integrated browser choice leaves only Apple's own, farcially under-powered, Safari/WebKit browser/engine...and there's precious little that other WebView browsers can do to improve the situation at a deep level.[11]

Web developers are understandably livid:

Seeing a Web App I worked on used by *Apple* to justify that the Web is a viable platform on iOS is bullshit

The Web can be an ideal place to build apps but Apple is consistently dragging their heals on implementing the Web APIs that would allow them to compete with native apps

In addition, by refusing to let any other Web browser engines run on iOS. They are preventing any other browser filling in the feature gap. Truly holding back Web Apps on iOS.

I have defended Apple's choice to restrict web browsers on their platform before and I still do but they can't have their cake and eat it to.

They should not hold back Web Apps with one hand and then turn around and say that Web Apps can compete with native apps.

Pointing to a site of serial developer mistreatment to justify other developer-hostile App Store policies takes next-level chutzpah.

Developer anger only hints at the underlying structural rot. 25+ years of integrated browser competition has driven waves of security, capability, and performance improvements. Competition has been so effective in delivering these benefits that browsers now represent most computing time on OSes with meaningful and integrated browser choice.

Hollowing out browser choice while simultaneously starving Safari and WebKit of resources, somewhat miraculously, put the genie back in the bottle. Privacy, security, performance, and feature evolution all suffer when the competition is less vibrant — and that's how Apple likes it.

Mark(et)d Impacts

A vexing issue for commentators regarding Apple's behaviour in this area is that of "market definition". What observers should understand is that, in the market for browsers, the costs that a browser vendor can inflict on web developers extend far beyond the market penetration for their specific product.

A typical (but misleading) shorthand for this is "standards compliance". While Apple's engine falls woefully short on support for ratified standards, that isn't even the beginning of the negative impacts.[12] Because the web is an open, interoperable platform, web developers build sites to reach the vast majority of browsers from a single codebase.

When browsers with more than ~10% share fail to add a feature or exhibit nasty bugs, web developers must pay attention and work around these limitations. In the case of outright missing APIs, entire classes of content may simply be viewed as unworkable. The cost of these capability gaps is steep. When the web cannot deliver experiences that iOS native apps can (a very long list), businesses must build entirely different apps using Apple's proprietary tools. These apps, not coincidentally, can only be distributed via Apple's high-tax App Store.

A lack of meaningful user choice in browsers leads directly to higher costs for users and developers across the entire digital ecosystem even if they don't use Apple's products. The permission structure Apple's norm-eroding policies have constructed has served to justify some of the worst privacy and choice-undermining behaviour of tech giants. Apple's leadership in the race to the bottom has inspired a burgeoning field of fast-followers.

Beyond direct harms, interested parties should not consider browser choice as somehow orthogonal to other objectionable App Store policies; they are part and parcel of an architecture of control that tilts commerce into coercive, centralising App Stores. No matter how Apple wants to define the market, its actions distort and undermine competition.

Small Changes to Restore Choice

Here's a quick summary of the systems and variations we've seen thus far, as well as their impacts on user choice:

System Respects Choice Notes
Integrated Browsers Yes Maximizes impact of choice
WebView Browsers Yes Reduces diversity in engines; problematic when the only option (iOS).
WebView IABs No Undermines user choice, reduces engine diversity, and directly harms developers through lower monetisation and feature availability (e.g., Facebook, Google Go).
Chrome Custom Tabs (CCT) Partial WebView IABs replacement, preserves choice by default (e.g. Twitter). Problematic when configured to ignore user preferences (e.g. AGA).
WebLayer No Like WebView with better feature support. Beneficial when used in place of WebViews for browsers. Problematic when used as a replacement for WebView IABs.
SFSafariViewController Partial Similar to CCT in spirit, but fails to support multiple browsers.

Proposals to repair this profoundly broken situation must centre first on the effectiveness of browser choice. Some policymakers have suggested returning to browser choice ballots, however these will not be effective in a world where user choice is undermined no matter which browser they choose. Interventions to encourage informed browser choice cannot have a positive effect until the impact of choices can be assured.

Thankfully, repairing the integrity of browser choice in the mobile ecosystem can be accomplished with relatively small interventions. We only need to ensure that integrated browsers are universally available and that when third-party content is displayed, user choice of browser is respected.


Repairing the IAB situation will likely require multiple steps, given the extreme delay in new Android OS revisions gaining a foothold in the market. Thankfully, many fixes don't need OS updates:

Future releases of Android should bolster these improvements by creating system-wide opt-out of WebView and WebLayer IABs.

Play policy enforcement of rules regarding CCT, WebView, and WebLayer respect for user and developer choice will also be necessary. Such enforcement is not challenging for Google, given its existing binary analysis infrastructure.

Together, these small changes can redress the worst anti-web, anti-user, anti-developer, and anti-choice behaviour of Google and Facebook regarding Android browsers, putting users back in control of their data and privacy along the way.


iOS begins from a more troubling baseline but with somewhat better IAB policies. What's undermining user choice there require deeper, OS-level fixes, including:

Allowing integrated browsers will require updates to Apple's App Store policies to clarify that alternative engines are permitted in the context of entitled applications.

For Markets To Work, Choice Must Matter

The mobile web is a pale shadow of its potential because the vehicle of progress that has delivered consistent gains for two decades has silently been eroded to benefit native app platforms and developers. These attacks on the commons have at their core a shared disrespect for the sanctity of user choice, substituting the agenda of app and OS developers for mediation by a user's champion.

This power inversion has been as corrosive as it has been silent, but it is not too late. OSes and app developers that wish to take responsibility can start today to repair their own rotten, choice-undermining behaviour and put users back in control of their browsing, their data, and their digital lives.

The ball's in your court, platforms.

Deepest thanks to Eric Lawrence and Kevin Marks for their thoughtful feedback on drafts of this post.

  1. Windows 10, for example includes several features (taskbar search box, lock screen links) that disrespect a user's choice of default browser. This sort of shortcut-taking in the competition for user attention has a long and discouraging history, but until relatively recently was viewed as "out of bounds". Mobile has shifted the Overton Window.

    A decade of degraded norms around browser choice by mobile OSes has made these sorts of unreasonable tie-ins less exceptional. The work-a-day confusion of following links on mobile helps to create a permission structure that enables ever-more bad behaviour. The Hobbesian logic of power-begets-success is fundamentally escalatory, forcing those without a priori privilege into a paranoid mode, undercutting attempts to differentiate products in a market on their merits.

    Fixing mobile won't be sufficient to unwind desktop's increasingly negative dark patterns, of course. But that's no reason to delay. Centering user's choices on their most personal devices can do much to reset the expectations of PMs and managers across the industry as to which tactics are, in fact, above-board. ↩︎

  2. It's less clear why Mozilla is MIA in at least making noise about the situation. Their organisation has a front-row seat to the downsides of undermined user choice. The inability to project the benefits of their engine into the lives of their mobile users materially harms their future business and differentiation prospects.

    It seems unlikely (if plausible) that the Firefox OS experience has so thoroughly burned management that there is no scope for mobile risk-taking, even if constrained to jawboning or blog posts.

    If any organisation can credibly, independently connect the dots, it should be the Mozilla Foundation. One hopes they do. ↩︎

  3. The history, competitive pressures, and norms of Android app developers caused many smaller apps to capture clicks (and user data), failing to send navigations onward.

    A shortlist of notable apps that undermine user choice via IABs would include:

    • Facebook Messenger
    • Instagram
    • Pinterest
    • Snapchat
    • Microsoft Bing Search

    Some apps that previously (ab)used WebViews for IABs in the pre-CCT era switched over to that choice-respecting mechanism, notably Twitter. ↩︎

  4. This definition of "a browser" may sit uncomfortably with folks accustomed to the impoverished set of choices Apple made possible on iOS until late last year. In particular, folks will undoubtedly note that "alternative browsers" were available in the App Store much earlier, including a Chrome-branded app since at least 2012.

    Even ignoring Apple's ongoing anti-competitive and anti-web behaviour regarding engine choice, the presence of these apps in stores or on a device wasn't meaningful for users in the ways we understand browsers on every other successful OS.

    Not all applications that can load web pages are browsers. Only apps that can become the user's agent in browsing the web are. Until nine months ago, iOS only supported Safari as a proper browser. "Alternative browsers" could only traverse link space when users began browsing within them. They were impotent to support users more broadly, unable to consistently assist users, modulate harmful aspects of content, or project user preferences into sites. Without the ability to catch all navigations sent to the OS, users who downloaded these programs suffered frequent computing amnesia. User preferences were only respected if users started browsing from within a specific app. Incidental navigations, however, were subject to Apple's monopoly on link handling and whatever choices Safari projected.

    In this way, iOS undermined choice and competition. OSes that prevent users from freely picking their agent in navigating the web most of the time cannot, therefore, be said to support browser choice — no matter how many directed-browsing apps they allow to list in their stores. ↩︎

  5. Problems related to background task killing can, of course, be avoided by building a web app instead of a native app one. When users remain in a browser across sites, there's no heavy process switch between pages. Developers tried this path for a while but quickly found themselves at an impossible feature disadvantage. Lack of Push Notifications alone proved business-defining, and Apple's App Store policies explicitly forbid web apps in their store.

    To be discovered where users are looking for apps and access business-critical features, mobile platforms effectively forced all developers into app stores. A strong insinuation that things would not go well for them in app stores if they used web technologies (via private channels, naturally) reliably accompanied this Sophie's choice.

    Platforms played these user-and-developer hostile games in mobile's early days to dig a moat of OS-exclusive apps. Exclusives create friction for users considering a switch to a different OS. Platform owners know the cost of re-developing apps for each OS means when independent software vendors invest heavily in their proprietary systems, it becomes less likely that those developers can deliver quality experiences on their competitor's system.

    App developers only have so many hours in the day, and it costs enormous amounts, both initially and in an ongoing way, to re-build features for each additional platform. The web is a portable applications platform, and portability is a bug to proprietary platform owners. The combination of engine neglect, feature gap expansion, and app store policies against web participation — explicit and implied — proved a shockingly effective "fix".

    This motivation eventually gave way to a second, more lucrative raison d'etre: rent extraction from a very narrow class of social games and the users addicted to them.

    The story of feature-gap coercion and "app store lottery" games illuminate the backdrop of a new normal that none of us should accept. ↩︎

  6. Many have adroitly covered the perspective and ethical distortions within social media firms caused by the relentless pursuit of "north star" metrics. There's little new I can add.

    I can, however, confirm some uncharitable takes of their detractors are directionally correct. One cannot engage with engineers and PMs from these organisations for a decade without learning something about their team's values.

    The blinkered pursuit of growth via "make number go up"-OKRs creates blind spots that are managed as exogenous crises. The health of the ecosystems around them is unfailingly subordinate to questions of competitive positioning. The hermetically circular logic of "we're changing the world for the better" does create incentives to undermine user autonomy, safety, and choice.

    The jury is no longer out. Change is possible, but it will not come from within. But "unintended consequences!" special pleading weighs heavily. To improve this situation, folks must understand it sufficient depth to mandate maximally effective, competition-and-choice-enhancing interventions that carry the lightest footprint.

    In the long list of dangerous, anti-competitive, opacity-increasing ills of modern tech products, the hollowing out of browser choice may seem small-time. Issues of content recommendation radicalisation, "persuasive design" dark patterns, source-of-funds ads opacity, and buried data collection controls surely deserve more attention. However, it would be a missed opportunity not to put users back in control of this aspect of their digital lives whilst the opportunity presents itself. ↩︎

  7. Social apps strip-mining ecosystems they didn't build for their benefit while deflecting responsibility for downside consequences?

    Heaven forfend! ↩︎

  8. Facebook engineers have noted that the FB IAB is important in fighting bad behaviour on their social network. We should take these claims at face value.

    Having done so, several further questions present themselves:

    • Why, then, is this system not opt-in? Presumably Facebook can convince a representative subset of users to enable it while preserving browser choice for the vast majority.
    • Why is CCT not invoked for low risk origins?
    • Why is Facebook not publicly attempting to improve CCT and SFSVC in ways that can meets its needs, given they may be required to move to SFSafariViewController for iOS
    • Why is this not a game-over problem for Facebook's desktop website?
    • If it's necessary to keep users within a browser that Facebook owns end-to-end, why not simply allow Facebook's native apps to be browsers. It's a simple Android manifest change that would put them back into line with the norms and expectations of the broader web community and allow them to compete for user's browsing time on the up-and-up. Not doing so suggests they have something to hide and may be ashamed of this browser that, by their calculations, keeps users safer.

    The need for more information to protect users may be real, but undermining choice for all is a remedy that, at least with the information that's public thus far, seems very tough to justify. ↩︎

  9. iOS didn't support browser choice at the time of SFSafariViewController's introduction and appeared only to have acquiesced to minimal (and initially broken) browser choice under regulatory duress. It is hardly surprising, then, that Apple hasn't updated SFSafariViewController to work with other default browsers the way CCT does.

    Will they? Doubtful, at least not until someone makes serious, sustained noise. Goodness knows there's a lot on the backlog, and they're chronically short-staffed (by choice). ↩︎

  10. Yes, even ChromeOS supports changing the default browser, complete with engine choice! ↩︎

  11. The supine position of browser makers to Apple's unjust, anti-competitive prohibition on integrated iOS browsers is vexing.

    For reasons that seem to boil down to Great Power calculations and myopic leadership focus on desktop, none of the major browser vendors has publicly challenged these rules or the specious, easily-debunked arguments offered to support them.

    To recap, Apple has at various points argued that the blatantly anti-competitive policies against integrated browsers are necessary because Apple cannot allow programs to run Just-In-Time (JIT) compilers for languages like JavaScript due to safety concerns. Apple's WebKit framework is the only program on the system allowed to contain such a JIT.

    JITs are central to modern JavaScript engines but are not strictly necessary in integrated browsers. Disallowing non-JITing alternative engines on this basis is nonsensical.

    Commenters forwarding these claims, as a rule, do not understand browser architecture. Any modern browser can suffer attacks against the privileged "parent" process, JIT or not. These "sandbox escapes" are not less likely for the mandated use of WebKit; indeed, by failing to expose APIs for sandboxed process creation, Apple prevents others from bringing stronger protections to users. iOS's security track record, patch velocity, and update latency for its required-use engine is not best-in-class.

    Apple's right to worry about engine security. Any vendor as frequently exploited by their browser engine would be. It is, however, backwards to under-invest here while simultaneously preventing more secure, more capable browsers from protecting users in the (long-running) breech. Apple's multi-year delay in shipping an allegory for Site Isolation should indicate to observers how unserious these arguments are.

    User security would be meaningfully improved were Apple to allow integrated browsers that demonstrated an Apple-esqe-or-better patch velocity. Such a policy is not hard to formulate, and the ability for apps running on top of the OS to update without slow, painful-for-users update processes would meaningfully improve patch rates versus today's OS-update-locked cadence for WebKit.

    Some commenters claim that browsers might begin to provide features that some users deem (without evidence) unnecessary or unsafe if alternative engines were allowed. These claims are doubly misinformed.

    Alternative WebView browsers can already add features through JavaScript monkey-patching. There's no substantive security or privacy benefit in forcing browser vendors to re-build them in a contorted (but still allowable) way on top of WebViews. Indeed, bringing an integrated engine to iOS would do much to prevent one-off security issues that have been a frequent occurrence in such WebView browser feature extensions. Securing a single codebase is more straightforward than having to analyse multiple platform-specific workarounds. Engine choice will improve security, in part, by focusing limited security reviewer time on fewer attack vectors. Of course, a functioning market for browsers will still allow users to pick from under-powered, less secure, slower-updating, feature-light browsers as they can today; Safari, for example.

    Misdirection about JITs and per-feature security posture are technically wanting but serve ably distract from iOS's deeper restrictions. Capable integrated browsers need access to a suite of undocumented APIs and capabilities Apple currently reserves to Safari, including the inability to create processes, set tighter sandboxing boundaries, or efficiently decode alternative media formats. Opening these APIs to competing integrated browsers would pave the way to safer, faster, more capable computing for iPhone owners.

    Others have argued on Apple's behalf that if engine competition were allowed, Chromium's (Open Source) Blink engine would become ubiquitous on iOS, depriving the ecosystem of diversity in engines. This argument is seemingly offered with a straight face to defend the very policies that have prevented effective engine diversity to date. Mozilla ported Gecko twice, but was never allowed to bring its benefits to iOS users. In addition to being self-defeating regarding engine choice, this fear also seems to ignore the best available comparison points. Safari is the default browser for MacOS and has maintained a healthy 40-50% share for many years, despite healthy competition from other integrated browsers (Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Edge, etc.). Such an outcome is at least as likely on iOS.

    Sitting under all of these arguments are, I suspect, more salient concerns to Apple's executives to resist increasing RAM in the iPhone's Bill of Materials. In the coerced status quo, Apple can drive device margins by provisioning relatively little in the way of (expensive) RAM components while still supporting multitasking. A vital aspect of this penny-pinching is to maximise sharing of "code pages" between programs. If alternative browsers suddenly began bringing their engines, code page sharing would not be as effective, requiring more RAM in Apple's devices to provide good multitasking experiences. More RAM could help deliver increased safety and choice to users, but would negatively impact Apple's bottom line.

    Undermining user choice in browsers has, in this way, returned significant benefits — to AAPL shareholders, anyway. ↩︎

  12. Engine developers possess outsized ability within standards bodies to deny new features and designs the ability to become standards in the first place. The Catch-22 is easy to spot once you know to look for it, but casual observers are often unacquainted with the way feature development on the web works.

    In a nutshell, its often the case features are shipped by browsers ahead of final, formal inclusion in web standards. Specifications are documents that describe the working of a system. Some specifications are ratified by Standards Development Organisations (SDOs) like the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) or Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) as "web standards". Thanks to wide implementation and unambiguous IP licensing, standards increase market confidence and adoption of designs. But no new feature's specification begins life as a standard.

    Market testing of proposed standards ("running code" in IETF-speak) are essential for the progress of any platform, and pejorative claims that a feature in this state is "proprietary" is misleading. This bleeds into active deception when invoked by other vendors who neither propose alternatives to solve developer challenges nor participate in shaping proposals in open collaboration.

    Withholding engagement, then claiming that someone else is proceeding unilaterally — when your input would remove the stain — is a rhetorical Möbius strip. ↩︎